The preservation of biodiversity is one of the strategic objectives of the Group’s environmental policy and is by now a consolidated practice. In most cases, the Group’s actions to protect biodiversity are carried out on a voluntary basis – through the adoption of ISO 14001 or EMAS management systems – although sometimes national regulations of the various countries influence such strategies, actions, and plans.
The activities relate to plants and their respective effects and consist in preventive and corrective action, social and environmental projects and studies and applied research projects for sustainable development. The Group promotes a number of projects in Italy and abroad, aimed at supporting the safeguard of ecosystems and natural habitats of the locations where it performs industrial operations and is active in the social cultural and environmental life, helping reduce the rate of biodiversity loss.
Enel’s activities aimed at protection animal and plant biodiversity include:
- terrestrial bio-monitoring
Enel bio-monitors the areas close to its plants, using methods that have been acknowledged by the scientific community at an International level.
- fluvial and marine monitoring
water bodies affected by thermal generation are monitored to assess that physical, chemical and biological parameters are not altered by discharges of cooling water. To this end, the benthos, plancton, phytoplanton, algaes and Posidonia oceaninca are examined.
fish culture is usually performed in water bodies affected by hydropower generation, in order to ensure high eco-systemic standards. Sometimes, in accordance with local entities, Enel uses fish species at greater risk of extinction – at a local level – like those included in the “Red List” drawn up by the IUCN.
Enel performs constant maintenance of its large network of hydropower reservoirs and discharges water in river beds under dams. This way, it creates a network of minor humid areas and preserves ecosystems that are vital for the reproduction, conservation and new settlement of several water bird species.